TROUT POINT LODGE, LIMITED, a Nova Scotia Limited Company, VAUGHN PERRET, and CHARLES LEARY, Plaintiffs-Appellants,
DOUG K. HANDSHOE, Defendant-Appellee.
Appeal from the United States District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi
Before REAVLEY, ELROD, and GRAVES, Circuit Judges.
JENNIFER WALKER ELROD, Circuit Judge:
This case requires us to construe the newly-enacted Securing the Protection of our Enduring and Established Constitutional Heritage Act (the "SPEECH Act"), 28 U.S.C. § 4102. Appellants Trout Point Lodge, Ltd. ("Trout Point Lodge"), Vaughn Perret ("Perret"), and Charles Leary ("Leary") (collectively, "Trout Point") seek to enforce a defamation-based default judgment that they obtained against Appellee Doug K. Handshoe ("Handshoe") in Nova Scotia, Canada. We agree with the district court that Trout Point cannot satisfy its burden under the SPEECH Act to show that either (A) Nova Scotian law provided at least as much protection for freedom of speech and press in Handshoe's case as would be provided by the First Amendment and relevant state law, or (B) Handshoe would have been found liable for defamation by a Mississippi court. 28 U.S.C. § 4102. Accordingly, we AFFIRM.
Handshoe, a Mississippi citizen, owns and operates Slabbed.org, a public-affairs blog with the tagline "Alternative New Media for the Gulf South." He describes Slabbed.org as a "forum for local residents and other interested parties to gather and share information regarding various political and legal issues that impact the Gulf Coast."
One of the blog's focal points over the last few years has been Aaron Broussard, the former Parish President of Jefferson Parish, Louisiana.Broussard was indicted in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana and pleaded guilty to charges of bribery and theft in September 2012. Handshoe claims that Slabbed.org has been "instrumental" in reporting the "ongoing corruption scandal, indictment, and guilty plea" involving Broussard.
During his time in office, Broussard owned property in Nova Scotia. The property sat on Trout Point Road, very close to Trout Point Lodge, a hotel that Perret and Leary own and operate. In about January 2010, Handshoe began publishing entries on Slabbed.org alleging a link between Broussard and Trout Point Lodge, Perret, and Leary. At or near the same time, the Times-Picayune, a New Orleans newspaper, published an article indicating that Broussard had an ownership interest in Trout Point Lodge and that Jefferson Parish contractors had paid to rent the premises. The Times-Picayune retracted this assertion and issued a correction after Perret and Leary alerted the paper to purported "factual errors in [its] reporting." It appears that the corporate parent of the Times-Picayune also took the Slabbed.org blog offline after Perret and Leary demanded this retraction. The district court determined that Handshoe, "apparently in reaction to his blog being taken offline, " found another web host for his site and "began an internet campaign to damage Perret and Leary." Specifically, Handshoe posted several updates regarding Trout Point Lodge, Perret, and Leary, which the district court noted "can be characterized as derogatory, mean spirited, sexist, and homophobic."
Trout Point filed suit in the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia (the "Nova Scotia Court") on September 1, 2011, alleging defamation and related claims. Trout Point's First Amended Statement of Claim referred to publications on Slabbed.org and related third-party web sites, which it asserted "were directly defamatory and were also defamatory by both true and false innuendo in that they would tend to lower the opinion or estimation of the plaintiffs in the eyes of others who read the defamatory publications as a series, or alternatively, in parts." At the outset, the First Amended Statement of Claim asserted four primary sources of reputational harm: (1) content linking Trout Point with the "Jefferson Parish Political Corruption Scandal, " the "sting" of which was that "Trout Point Lodge and its owners were somehow involved in corruption, fraud, money laundering, and 'pay to play' schemes involving Jefferson Parish President Aaron Broussard and his administration"; (2) the "clear imputation" that Trout Point "misled investors and court officials in litigation" with the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency ("ACOA"), the "sting" of which was that "Leary perjured himself, investors were misled, businesses nefariously changed ownership, and that the ACOA litigation is ongoing, with the plaintiffs [losing] every step of the way"; (3) the "imputation" that the "Trout Point Lodge business is actively failing, near bankruptcy, having once relied on the good graces of Aaron Broussard, " along with the "related imputation" that Perret and Leary "have had a series of failed businesses that used other people's money, creating a pattern, " the "sting" of which was that Trout Points's "13-year-old business is on the verge of bankruptcy, that the plaintiffs will take the money and run, and that the plaintiffs are either con artists or have no business acumen whatsoever"; and (4) the "unabashed anti-gay, anti-homosexual rhetoric and rants of the defendant, " used to "amplify and support the three other stings listed above" and "support and shore up all the other defamatory imputations."
The First Amended Statement of Claim continued to describe several specific blog posts on Slabbed.org, reciting much of the offensive language that Handshoe used to refer to Perret and Leary. Some of the alleged defamatory statements indicated Handshoe's poor opinion of Perret and Leary, for example, that they "had Champagne taste on a beer budget, " "work as a unit to grift their way through life, " and were either "first-class b-tches, common thugs, or plain ol' morons."
In stating its defamation claim, Trout Point generically alleged that Handshoe's publications were false and malicious. It did not, however, make any specific statements to refute the truth of the individual blog posts at issue.For example, the First Amended Statement of Claim included no information regarding Trout Point's actual connection to Broussard, if any, or its financial solvency.
Trout Point purportedly served Handshoe with a notice of the First Amended Statement of Claim in Mississippi, but Handshoe did not appear in the Nova Scotia action. In December 2011, the Nova Scotia Court entered a default judgment against Handshoe (the "Nova Scotia Judgment"). The Nova Scotia Judgment provided: "In accordance with the Civil Procedure Rule 31.12(4), Douglas K. Handshoe is now taken to have admitted, for the purposes of this action, the claims made against him in the Statement of Claim."
The Nova Scotia Court set the matter for a hearing to assess damages. At the hearing, Perret and Leary testified and offered additional evidence regarding Handshoe's allegedly defamatory statements and the damage that they inflicted on Trout Point Lodge, and Perret and Leary individually. Following the hearing, the court issued an oral decision summarizing the relevant Canadian law, the content of the publications at issue, and the harm that Trout Point purportedly suffered. Ultimately, the court awarded Trout Point Lodge $75, 000 in general damages, and Leary and Perret each $100, 000 in general damages, $50, 000 in aggravated damages, and $25, 000 in punitive damages. It also awarded $2, 000 in costs.
Trout Point enrolled the Nova Scotia Judgment in the Circuit Court of Hancock County, Mississippi, in March 2012 in an attempt to collect its damages award. Handshoe removed the action to the United States District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi pursuant to the SPEECH Act. The parties agreed that all issues were strictly legal in nature and, therefore, elected to submit the matter to the district court on cross-motions for summary judgment.
The district court entered summary judgment in Handshoe's favor, finding that Trout Point failed to meet its burden under the SPEECH Act to show that "Handshoe was afforded at least as much protection for freedom of speech in [the Nova Scotia] action as he would have in a domestic proceeding or, alternatively, that Handshoe would have been ...