Before Thomas, P.j., Diaz, And Southwick, JJ.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Thomas, P.j.
DATE OF JUDGMENT: 04/02/97
TRIAL JUDGE: HON. BILLY JOE LANDRUM
COURT FROM WHICH APPEALED: JONES COUNTY CIRCUIT COURT
NATURE OF THE CASE: CRIMINAL - FELONY
TRIAL COURT DISPOSITION: POSSESSION OF MORE THAN ONE KILOGRAM OF MARIJUANA SENTENCED TO SERVE A TERM OF 20 YRS IN THE CUSTODY OF THE MDOC WITH 5 YRS SUSPENDED LEAVING 15 YRS TO SERVE & PAY A FINE OF $30,000 WITH $20,000 BEING SUSPENDED, LEAVING A BALANCE OF $10,000 FINE
¶1. Jose Guerrero was convicted of possession of more than a kilogram of marijuana and sentenced to twenty years with five years suspended and was ordered to pay a fine of $30,000 with $20,000 suspended. On appeal, Guerrero assigns the following issues, listed verbatim, as error:
I. IS DRIVING AFTER MIDNIGHT WHILE MEXICAN PROBABLE CAUSE TO STOP A VEHICLE?
II. IF THE ABOVE IS AFFIRMATIVE, DOES FAILURE TO HAVE A VALID DRIVERS LICENSE JUSTIFY CALLING AHEAD TO ANOTHER JURISDICTION TO BE ON THE LOOK OUT FOR THE VEHICLE?
III. IS OUR STATUTE ON CARELESS DRIVING TOO VAGUE?
IV. DOES STOPPING THE SUBJECT VEHICLE IN THE ALERTED JURISDICTION JUSTIFY DETAINING THE DRIVER UNTIL A CANINE UNIT ARRIVES?
V. IF NO CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE IS NOT FOUND NEAR THE RIGHT FRONT TIRE OF THE SUBJECT VEHICLE WHERE THE "DOPE DOG" WAS SAID TO HAVE "ALERTED", JUSTIFY TAKING THE VEHICLE APART?
VI. IS A CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE LOCATED IN ONE OF THE GAS TANKS OF THE SUBJECT VEHICLE TO BE IMPUTED TO GUERRERO WHO DID NOT OWN THE VEHICLE?
VII. HOW MUCH PERSONAL FREEDOM ARE WE WILLING TO LOSE TO THE MILITARY ARM OF OUR CITIES IN QUEST OF PROTECTION?
VIII.THE LOWER COURT ERRED IN FAILING TO SUPPRESS THE EVIDENCE OBTAINED BY SEARCH OF THE SUBJECT VEHICLE.
XI. THE LOWER COURT ERRED IN FAILING TO DIRECT A VERDICT OF ACQUITTAL.
Finding no error, we affirm.
¶2. During the early morning hours of June 18, 1995, Jose Guerrero was pulled over for a traffic violation. Acting on a tip received from the Smith County Sheriff's Department via radio dispatch, Officers Doug Hill and Kevin Flynn of the Laurel Police Department set up surveillance near the Laurel city limits. The dispatch advised Hill and Flynn that a white Ford pickup truck with Florida license plates was headed south on Highway 15 to Jones County and that the vehicle had been previously stopped by a Smith County deputy sheriff. The dispatch also advised that the vehicle appeared suspicious and was possibly carrying contraband.
¶3. As Guerrero entered the Laurel city limits, Officers Hill and Flynn pulled in behind Guerrero and followed him for approximately two miles, during which time Guerrero broke the center line two to three times. Officers Hill and Flynn stopped the vehicle and asked the driver, Guerrero, for his driver's license. Guerrero stated that he did not have a driver's license and produced a Texas identification card which indicated Guerrero was seventeen years of age. Guerrero was then placed under arrest for driving without a driver's license. When asked his point of origin and destination, Guerrero responded that he was traveling from Houston, Texas to Florida. Guerrero also stated that the vehicle belonged to his brother and that he had borrowed the truck for the weekend, but that his brother did not know where he was going in the vehicle.
¶4. Officer Hill testified that given the fact that Guerrero was traveling the "back roads" instead of the interstate and that Guerrero had few items of clothing with him, a K-Nine unit was called to the scene to conduct a scan of the vehicle for drugs. K-Nine Officer Ken Williams arrived a short time later with his K-Nine partner Bycal, a five-year-old German Shepard. As Officer Williams and Bycal were conducting their scan of the vehicle, Bycal indicated the presence of ...